Chernobyl is the name of a Ukrainian city and it was where the Chernobyl nuclear disaster took place. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located 100km from Kiev in Ukraine. The Chernobyl nuclear disaster was a devastating accident on 26 April 1986 when reactor no 4 exploded with reactor fire that lasted for 10days at the Chernobyl power plant in Pripyat a City in Ukraine -founded on the 14th of February 1970, officially a city in 1979 with a population of 49,360, it was abandoned few days after the 1986 Chernobyl accident.
A sudden surge of power during a reactor system test destroyed unit 4 of the nuclear power station, helicopters were used to pour sand and boron on the reactor debris. The sand was meant to stop the fire and excess radioactive materials, the explosion caused the release of radioactive particles into the air which later spread over Europe, because of this it was noted that the Chernobyl disaster was a major accident talking of causalities and costs to fight the contamination, as a result of this, thousands of employees where needed to work on the area and measure were taken to contain the exposure. It was reported that about 31 deaths were directly caused as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
Few weeks later, the damaged area was covered with a temporary structure designed named “sarcophagus” to stop the further release of excess radioactive material into the environment. The Chernobyl exclusion zone is an officially exclusion zone around the site of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster and it is also known as the 30 kilometer zone or the zone. The Chernobyl exclusion zone was established after the
1986 disaster and it is a region of approximately 30km radius from the power plant but due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the area was designated for evacuation and placed under military control-occupying a larger part of Ukraine.
A square mile of pine forest was buried near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to reduce the radioactive contamination around. Only individuals on official business and project at the plant or those charged with evaluating and dealing with the consequences of the nuclear accident and those operating the undamaged reactors were only allowed around and into the site after the government already evacuated about 115,000 people from the heavily contaminated areas in 1986 and about 220,000 people later on.
28 workers out of 600 workers later died due to severe exposure to the radiation caused by the accident. Although about 106 workers had already received high doses almost enough to cause radiation sicknesses. However, about 2 workers had already died within hours of the explosion though not from the radiation, over h
alf a million workers were employed to clean up the areas and the government ensured that the workers’ health were regularly checked.
The Chernobyl nuclear disaster destabilized, affected and contaminated the Russian federation, Belarus and Ukraine all inhabited by millions of people, however the consequences was not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia or Ukraine as other European countries were also much affected but not as much as the three countries. The WHO (World health organization) recognized and was concerned about the radiation exposure to people living in those areas before being evacuated.
Thyroid cancer have been diagnosed with children and teenagers living around those areas in 1986 and this was caused as a result of drinking contaminated milks which contained radioactive iodine caused by the Nuclear disaster thereby contaminating their thyroid glands, because of this over 6,000 thyroid cancer issues have been discovered amo
ng the victims living around the area during the Nuclear accident, fortunately over 95% of the victims were successfully treated. It was further discovered that some deaths around the area especially those caused by cancer came to be as a result of the Chernobyl disaster.
Although, it is almost three decades since the accident happened, there are still controversies concerning the impact of the disaster and the environmental hazards and implications. The nuclear disaster emitted radioactive particles into the environment and atmosphere contaminating the aquatic and urban areas. The urban areas like the parks, streets, roads and roofs became contaminated during dry conditions; bushes, lawns and the roofs were much -more contaminated but under wet conditions parks and lawns received the greatest contamination, however immediate care was taken to reduce severe exposure by the evacuation of the people.
The agricultural environment was also contaminated, the agricultural plants and animals were exposed to the radiation and reindeer meat was contaminated in areas like Russian and Sweden as a result of the nuclear disaster. The water system, even that of Europe was contaminated due to direct deposition unto the surface of rivers and lakes. The contamination of the aquatic had already decreased after countless dilution and physical decay of the radioactive particles.
Active measures were taken immediately in reducing radio iodine intake through milk due to milks contamination; unfortunately the radio iodine exposure couldn’t be fully controlled due to lack of timel
y information and guidance that should have been provided to individuals and private agricultural farmers. Further measures taken to reduce the exposure was being careful of contaminated pasture feeds for the agricultural animal, feeding the animals with a clean fodder and proper and clean milk processing.
A long term agricultural problem faced has been the contamination of milk and meat, other measures taken include; the treatment of land used for crops, application of caesium binders to animals, restricting firewood collection by the public, restriction of any hunting practices to avoid consumption of meat already contaminated, prevention of fire in areas highly contaminated, restriction on the harvesting of food products e.g. mushrooms.
Belarus assigns over $1 million on a daily basis to help combat the effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Over the years, it has managed to resolve problems and find solutions to emergencies especially helping
those who suffered from the accident. It was calculated that the damages caused by the Chernobyl disaster was over $250 billion however ,with all the investments made to recover the damages they were still not enough to cover the damages caused by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
and contaminated areas will be healthy again as time goes by after the soil gets rid of the radionuclides and other harmful particles, although the affected regions will also need large investments notwithstanding, this is also a long term process in terms of acquiring funds.
Knowledge and advancement in technology has been gained over the years due to the scientific activities and researches made in overcoming the catastrophe caused by the Chernobyl nuclear disa
ster and this has greatly helped the international community and the world at large to discover new ways on how to address emergency situation in any region or area of the world.
The Nuclear disaster was the world greatest man-made disaster ever, and its occurrence had a drastic effect on the ecosystem and the consequences and results was a dangerous radioactive exposure that hit Europe and Russia and almost destroyed everything .The bad tragedy really affected people’s life, economy and culture especially that of Belarus. The agricultural sector of the country s economy is worth over $800 million annually. Losses incurred include; one fifth of the agricultural lands, contamination of the Belarusian forests, mineral resources and industries. Over 2 million people, suffered from the consequences with over a million still living in contaminated areas.
Medically, the implication of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster caused a rapid growth of cancer, especially thyroid cancer common among the children in those areas caused as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Thyroid cancer went 50 times up with 10 times up among the adults living around the areas. The whole population went through physiologic effects and problems as a result of the residence change, bad health conditions and many were forced to change their way of life and adapt to new conditions available to them, because of this emergency measures that was taken required “a string of time” and some money consuming efforts.
Belarus with support from international organizat
ions created favorable conditions for the recovery of the affected areas and they include; settlement of people from the most contaminated area, adequate protection system for all the population, radiation control and monitoring system in the agricultural system to help produce good and safe food, a legislation to regulate all the recovery activities within Belarus.
International organizations really helped play a significant role to effectively reduce the consequences and adverse effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster on the affected areas. The UN spent over $80 million to help reduce the effects of the disaster. Charity organizations and individuals also help render assistance to Belarus, nonetheless all the donations and financial assistance was not enough to make up for the total damage done to the whole region.
There have been various recovery projects to aid the
recovery of the affected areas. The Chernobyl Shelter Fund was established in 1997 and its duty is to help finance the Shelter Implementation (SIP) and its main aim is to help transform the site into an ecologically safe place.
The United Nation Development Programme launched the Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme (CRDP) in 2003 for the recovery of the affected areas and its main aim is to help support the Ukraine government in reducing the ecological consequences of the catastrophe.
The International Project on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPEHCA) was created to help discover the main cause of health problems du
e to radiation. It received funds from japan and the funds were divided between Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The Chernobyl reactor is presently enclosed in a large concrete sarcophagus-built to allow the operation of the other reactors.
After the nuclear accident, the Chernobyl Raion administration was being transferred to the neighboring Ivankiv Raion. And although the city is now ghost towns, a number of people still live in houses marked with sign saying that “the owner of this house lives here. Official workers are stationed in the city to watch and keep an eye on the exclusion zone. Different types of animals’ live there now mostly are mammals and this came to be as a result of the city parts mostly desolated.
According to WHO, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was estimated to have caused up to 4,000 deaths from cancers and may create over 40,000 excess cancers in the future, however comparing the Chernobyl nuclear disaster with other nuclear events, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster put 400 times more radioactive particles into the atmosphere than even the atomic bomb. In order words the radioactive particles lived longer than those released by bomb detonation, nevertheless the radiation particles spread over the years is much less harmful.
The Friends of Chernobyl children is a ch
arity organization that was established in 1995 with the sole aim of bringing together children at risk; from Belarus to the United Kingdom. The charity organization was established as a result of the Chernobyl disaster and the effect on the children. Annually over 700 children are moved to Britain from orphanages and poor homes and they are provided with medicines.
Another charitable organization is the Chernobyl children project which is a United Kingdom registered organization. The charity organization helps brings the children to UK for holidays most of them suffering from cancer and some diabetes. Projects undertaken by the organization includes; rendering assistance to children living with cancer by supporting and helping with medicines, care for children living with poor conditions even with families, providi
ng training and educational facilities to support the children.
The Aid con
voy is also a Br
itable organization running various humanitarian projects especially in Europe. The organization supports the area affe
cted by the Chernobyl nuclear dis
aster by providing a safe and social space for you
ng people and also supporting orphanages, training and encouraging the youth.
Ukrainian National Museum is a historical museum located within Ukraine established on 25 April 1992 that was dedicated to the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and its effects on the country. The museum combines collections of artifacts, models and items to educate tourists and the public about the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986.The m
useum provides details of the nuclear disaster. The museum is founded by the Ukrainian government receiving support and funds from the Japanese government. Fortunately, most of the cultural items and artifacts have been translated into other foreign languages mostly English to aid easy access for tourist visiting.